The goal of current temperament research is to identify early appearing, enduring behavioral phenotypes with a neurogenetic basis; to examine their role in psychological development; and to explore their relevance for treatment.

The recent growth of temperament research (illustrated below) parallels breakthroughs in genetics and neurobiology of personality and new findings on life outcomes of early childhood behavioral phenotypes. New approaches to treatment are being developed from these strands of basic research. The Handbook (available in paperback since 2015) provides extensive coverage of all these developments in one integrative volume.